Sheet metal parts cost estimation and quick quotation solution


1.1 Introduction to CAPP for Sheet Metal Parts
1.1.1 Introduction to Sheet Metal and Group Process
Sheet metal (sheet metal) has not yet had a relatively complete definition. According to a description in a foreign professional journal, it can be considered that its concept is: sheet metal is a comprehensive processing technology for sheet metal (usually below 6mm). Including cutting, punching, bending, welding, riveting, splicing, crimping, forming, etc. The most primitive blank for manufacturing sheet metal parts is generally sheet metal, so its notable feature is the same thickness of the same part.

Among many sheet metal processes, the three most important steps are cutting, punching and bending. The CNC cutting of sheet metal is an extremely important link in the manufacturing process of sheet metal parts. Fast, reasonable and efficient CNC cutting of sheet metal is an important prerequisite for the subsequent processing of sheet metal parts, and it is also an important part of the manufacturing cost of sheet metal products.

Sheet metal processing generally includes basic equipment including CNC flame, plasma, laser, water jet cutting machine (CNC Flame, Plasma, Laser, Water jet Cutting Machine), CNC shearing machine (CNC Shear Machine), CNC bending machine (CNC Bending Machine), CNC Punching Machine, Combination Machine and various auxiliary equipment, such as decoiler, leveling machine, deburring machine, spot welding machine, etc.

Group Technology GT (Group Technology) is a manufacturing philosophy that uses similarity to classify and code products to realize product design, manufacturing and assembly. Broadly speaking, group technology is to classify many different but similar things into groups according to certain criteria, so that several things can adopt the same solution, so as to save manpower, time and cost. . Group process refers to a process designed for a group of similar parts. Its design methods include compound parts method and compound route method. The composite part method refers to the method of designing the group process according to the composite part. The composite part is an imaginary part, which has all the shape features of the same group of parts. The compound route method starts with analyzing the process route of each part of the part group (family), selects the most complex and longest process route as the basis, and then takes the processes that are unique to other parts but are not included in the basic process route. Arrange them in a reasonable manner, and finally form a method to meet the requirements of the entire group of parts. Similarity is an important basis for the realization of the group process. According to the similarity between the sheet metal parts, it can be roughly divided into three categories: Each category, profile category and pipe category can be subdivided, as shown in Figure 1-1, 1-2 and 1-3 respectively.

1.1.2 Part description based on coding
The description and discovery of part information is the first problem to be solved in the manufacturing process of sheet metal parts. It is the basis for systematically accurate and reliable process decision-making. Describing part information by coding has been proved to be a very effective method by engineering practice. According to the classification of sheet metal parts, the use of group technology and the adoption of a practical coding method are of great significance to the realization of sheet metal parts CAPP.

At home and abroad, the research and development of parts classification and coding systems are attached great importance. The stamping parts classification and coding system of Japan Machinery Promotion Association and MULTKLASS of Holland are used for the coding of sheet metal parts. The SMCAPP system of plate and shell parts is based on the method of parts Classify and code the parts differently. In order to adapt to product changes, the coding system also requires flexibility. Flexible code model for sheet metal parts. Flexibility is embodied in that the code position of the extended code can be expanded. Geometry and other features are added on the basis of rough classification. Its essence is the process of classification and refinement; In the coding method of long code points, the code number changes with the change of the number of shape features of the part.

Coding method: Encode the sheet metal parts according to the structure shown in Table 1-1. The coding method generally adopts a segmented structure and consists of 15 code points; the part code is divided into two information segments, the first to the tenth The bit is the design information segment, which describes the material, function and structural characteristics of the part, and the 11th to 15th bits are the process information segment, which describes the process characteristics of the part.

Each code point describes a feature item of the part. The code position definition includes the analysis of the characteristic item value domain and the establishment of the code value according to each characteristic value. For code points with a characteristic value in a finite value range, the code value adopts a decimal number; for a code point with a characteristic value without a value range, the code value is represented by a combination of decimal numbers and characters. A code value of 0 means that the code point is empty.

(1) The first to the 9th: "family-type-type" code
According to the feature diversity of sheet metal parts, the parts are divided into families according to material varieties, roughly classified according to the function of the parts, and classified according to the typical structure of the parts. Examples of division are shown in Figures 1-1, 1-2 and 1-3. . The first 9 bits together constitute the basic code with "family-type-type" as the main body, and the code value is represented by decimal numbers.

(2) The 10th bit: structure configuration code
Structural configuration represents the composition and interrelationship of the structural elements of a part, and is the basis for compiling part manufacturing instructions, defining polymorphic models, and performing process evaluation. After the sheet metal parts are classified into "classes" according to their functions, each type of part has its own structural characteristics, and a certain structural element is selected as the reference matrix, and a basic structure tree with a certain hierarchical relationship for this type of part is established to represent the structural configuration. For example, as shown in Figure 1-4, the structural tree of the web in the frame rib part is shown.

(3) The 11th to the 15th: craft code
The 11th to 15th digits are the craft code, which represents the craft feature of the part, and the code value can be empty when encoding. Among them, process requirements mainly refer to certain requirements that must be considered during process design, such as process margin, welding requirements, high-precision requirements, and coordination requirements. Although the process requirements are combined information, the total number of combinations is limited and expressed in decimal numbers. Production batch is also one of the factors that affect the choice of forming process. For the same part, different forming processes may be selected for trial production and mass production.

1.1.3 Matching of typical process flow
The essence of classification coding is to merge a large number of different parts into a limited number of types, so as to complete the tasks of manufacturing instruction preparation, mold design and other manufacturing engineering based on the retrieval knowledge of these types. In sheet metal manufacturing companies, there are always certain specific typical parts. For typical parts, knowledge of typical process flow and typical mold design flow can be formulated to improve design efficiency and quality. Through generalization and standardization, a database of part feature values ​​and code values ​​is established, and flexible coding methods are applied to develop a coding system for sheet metal parts. The coding method is mainly used in two related aspects in the knowledge-based sheet metal manufacturing system: one is used to describe knowledge to obtain knowledge; the other is to describe part information to retrieve knowledge.

Take the process design based on the typical process flow as an example. First, the coding system is used to code the part, and the user selects and sets the combination of feature items as the search condition, and then the process flow is retrieved through the direct matching of the code value. For each structural element, determine whether it is used as a search condition according to the part type. For example, the lightening holes of frame rib parts need to be punched, and different types of lightening holes require different molds. The process flow similar to the part structure can be retrieved through structural configuration matching. Figure 1-5 shows the application scheme of this coding method in the process design system of sheet metal parts.

The typical process design knowledge in the knowledge base consists of two parts: the part information part and the typical process flow. In the process of knowledge acquisition, the part information part is described by coding method (as shown in Figure 1-5), which is the same as the part information input process.

For the process design of processing parts, a certain combination of feature items can be set as the retrieval conditions. By matching the part code contained in the insult knowledge and the current part code on each code value of the retrieval condition one by one, you can quickly retrieve suitable Typical technological process of machining parts.

1.2 Cost estimation of sheet metal parts based on activity-based costing
1.2.1 Introduction to Activity-Based Costing
Activity-Based Costing is also known as ABC (Activity-Based Costing) method. As a new method of product cost calculation, it is based on the operation and calculates the production cost of the product through the analysis of the cost driver of the operation, which provides the management of the enterprise. A cost calculation method for relatively accurate cost information. The basic idea of ​​activity-based costing is to introduce operations as an intermediary between resources and products. According to the basic principle of "jobs consume resources, products consume operations, production leads to operations, and operations cause costs", the resources of the enterprise are allocated to operations. Form the operating cost, and then allocate the operating cost to different products, and finally form the product cost.

The operations here refer to the processes and links that consume resources to meet a certain purpose in the production and operation of the enterprise. The basic theory of this method is the theory of cost drivers, which believes that the distribution of costs should focus on the source of costs (cost drivers), link the distribution of costs with the causes of costs, and carry out cost control and aggregation based on the causes of costs. And distribution, and management analysis and decision-making on this basis. In accordance with the basic principles and ideas of activity-based costing, and the use of activity-based costing for cost accounting, you should first understand the production and operation process of the enterprise, divide the types of operations, establish an operation center, set up an activity cost library, and choose the most appropriate for each cost library Cost driver; then calculate the cost driver rate of each cost library, allocate the cost of the cost library to the product according to the number of cost drivers consumed by each part, and finally get the total cost of the product.

1.2.2 The main components of the cost of sheet metal parts
The cost incurred by a production enterprise is mainly from the design fee after the company receives the order, the material fee and manufacturing fee in the production and manufacturing activities of the company, and the inspection fee, transportation fee, travel fee and after-sales service in the product inspection, management and sales activities of the company Service fees and other expenses are made up together. Combined with the actual situation of sheet metal enterprises, the general calculation formula for sheet metal parts cost can be written as:
C+D+M1+M2+M3 (4.1)

In the formula: C-the cost of sheet metal parts.
D-Design fee, that is, technical development fee, including sheet metal structure design fee, product and mold 3D modeling and modeling fee, process specification design fee, computer-aided process analysis and forming process analysis fee, CAM programming fee, etc.

D——Material fees, which refer to the raw materials, main materials and semi-finished products purchased directly into the entity or main part of the product through manufacturing, as well as the cost of auxiliary materials that contribute to the formation of the product, including main material (plate) fees and auxiliary materials Expenses, energy consumption, etc.

M2——Manufacturing cost, refers to the cost of material and manpower consumed in the manufacturing activities of the product, including sheet metal parts on various cutting, punching, bending and other CNC equipment, as well as in the process of fitter, surface treatment, assembly Costs incurred in.

M3——Management fee, refers to the cost of inspection, management, sales, etc., such as inspection fee, packaging fee, transportation fee, travel fee, after-sales service fee, etc. of sheet metal parts.

1.2.3 Division of Operation Center
When a sheet metal manufacturing company receives an order, the first work to be done is process analysis. On this basis, the process route is designed, the entire process flow of sheet metal manufacturing is determined, and the appropriate processing equipment is selected according to the process flow. The three-dimensional drawing of the sheet metal parts is expanded into a plan view, and the layout is carried out on the plate of the appropriate size. This stage is called the technical preparation stage: the next step is to enter the production preparation stage, including sheet preparation, auxiliary materials and energy consumption preparation, external parts and standards Parts procurement and other processes; and then enter the production stage. This stage is mainly the process of converting the sheet metal into sheet metal products under the combined action of various processing equipment and people, including cutting, punching, bending, fitter, Welding, surface treatment, assembly, etc.; the final stage is the sales stage, including the process of face inspection, packaging, transportation and after-sales service of sheet metal products.

According to ABC's thinking, the production process of sheet metal products is a collection of a series of operations. Each operation consumes resources during its completion, thereby incurring costs. Therefore, the total cost of sheet metal products is the consumption of each operation. The sum of costs. If the operations in the production process of sheet metal parts can be determined and the cost of each operation can be estimated, then the total cost of sheet metal parts can also be obtained. The so-called operation refers to the manpower and labor consumed by the company to provide a certain amount of products or labor services. The combination of technology, materials, methods and environment is the production and operation activities carried out by enterprises consuming resources. Resources of the same nature are integrated into one operation, resources of different nature are decomposed into different types of operations, and different types of operations have different operation centers. The determination of the operation center can be carried out according to the sheet metal production process.

According to the production process of sheet metal parts, its operation center can be divided into five first-level operation centers:
(1) Order operation center.

(2) Design operation center.

(3) Purchasing operation center.

(4) Machining operation center. This operation center can be further subdivided into several secondary operation centers according to the processing equipment used and the nature of the processing. Including cutting processing operation center, blanking processing operation center, bending processing operation center, clamp processing operation center, etc.

(5) Management operation center. These operation centers constitute the sheet metal production operation process shown in Figure 1-6.

1.2.4 The determination of the activity cost library and its cost drivers
The so-called activity cost library refers to the collection of costs incurred due to the occurrence of activities based on activities. According to the above division of operations, five corresponding operation cost libraries can be established, the costs of each operation are collected into the corresponding cost libraries, and the corresponding costs are collected for each cost library. After the job center is established and the homogeneous job costs are collected as the job cost library, it is necessary to select the appropriate job driver from the multiple job drivers in the job cost database as the representative cost driver of the cost database, and calculate the cost driver allocation rate. Therefore, how to select a cost driver that can truthfully reflect the situation and is easier to make statistics is the key. According to the actual situation of the sheet metal enterprise, an appropriate cost driver is selected for the above five cost libraries.

(1) Order activity cost library and its cost drivers
This cost library contains various expenses incurred in the process of accepting orders, mainly including network communication expenses, car travel expenses of marketing personnel, etc. Sheet metal companies generally produce on order. After receiving an order, various subsequent expenses will be incurred. Therefore, the cost driver of the cost library is the number of orders, and the unit is: copies.

(2) Design operation center cost library and its cost drivers
This cost library includes various expenses incurred in the process of sheet metal modeling, modeling, structural design, process analysis and design, sheet layout, etc. Therefore, the cost here is mainly caused by the software and hardware necessary for sheet metal design Depreciation expenses, the cost of materials consumed, as well as the salaries and benefits of designers. According to different orders, design and analyze different sheet metal products, so the order quantity should also be the cost driver of the activity cost library, and the unit is: copies.

(3) Purchasing operation center cost library and its cost drivers
This cost library contains various expenses incurred during the procurement process, including material costs, standard parts purchase costs, outsourced parts costs, and personnel salaries, benefits, travel expenses, and communication costs that occur during the procurement process. The purchase quantity determines the cost of the purchase, so the purchase quantity should be the cost driver of the cost library, and the unit is: piece.

(4) Cost library of processing operation center and its cost drivers
This cost library includes various costs incurred during the processing of sheet metal parts such as cutting, punching, bending, welding, surface treatment, assembly, and fitter, including power costs, depreciation costs, maintenance costs of various processing equipment, and related The cost of tool wear and tear, CNC programming fees, and the wages and benefits of operators. Whether it is CNC machining such as cutting, punching, bending, welding, or manual machining such as assembly, surface treatment, and fitter, the cost of such operations is mainly determined by the operating time of the processing equipment and the operating time of the workers. Under the premise of the quota, the operating time of the processing equipment and the operating time of the workers determine the processing cost. Therefore, the processing time should be the cost driver of the operating cost library, and the unit is: hour.

(5) Manage the cost library of the operation center and its cost drivers
This cost library includes various expenses incurred in the process of inspection, transportation and after-sales service after the production of sheet metal parts. It does not include the salaries, office expenses and benefits of the company's administration, finance, and Renfeng management personnel. Such expenses are easier to determine than the above expenses and can be added to the total cost at the end. Excluding the influence of transportation distance, each inspection, transportation, and after-sales service will incur a cost. Therefore, the number of inspections, transportation, and after-sales services should be the cost driver of the operating cost library, and the unit is: times.

1.3 Analysis of the influence of main auxiliary factors on the quotation of sheet metal products
Product quotation refers to the response of the supplier or company to the price quoted by the customer for the target product in response to the customer's inquiry, and the reply to the customer's other requirements. Product quotation is a very important link in the modern business activities of order-oriented production. For different products, different customers, and at different times, timely, reasonable and scientific quotations are an important foundation for products to gain profits, occupy the market, and for rapid development of enterprises.

The final price calculated by most quotation systems is generally based on product cost and profit. In the quotation process, some auxiliary factors are often ignored. These auxiliary factors include product characteristic information, such as delivery date, delivery method, and quality commitment. After-sales service commitment, after-sales technical support, etc.: market environment information, such as product update period, product raw material supply, the company's comprehensive strength, the competitor's comprehensive strength, the competitor’s quotation strategy: customer characteristic information, such as customer type , Customer area, customer requirements for product performance, quality, delivery time, after-sales service, etc. These factors are often the key to the quotation. Through the understanding, analysis and summary of these factors, the decisions formed not only have a great impact on the price of the product, but also on the acquisition of orders, the success of transactions, and even the development of the company. All are of great help.

Cost estimates can be relatively accurate, and successful quotations are not only generated from the accurate calculation of product manufacturing costs, but also from full understanding and analysis of customers, competitors and market conditions. Therefore, in the quotation In the process, the company must understand the advantages and disadvantages of the product, maximize the strengths and avoid weaknesses, highlight the selling points, must understand the market conditions and the dynamics and actions of competitors, and must communicate with customers in depth. Obtaining this information is a prerequisite for the company to be able to make a full and reasonable quotation.

1.3.1 Analysis of Product Features
Each enterprise's product has its own characteristics, its own advantages and disadvantages. Only by exploiting its strengths and avoiding weaknesses, giving full play to its advantages, and finding the selling point of its products, can an enterprise remain invincible in the fierce competition.

There are many product attributes that arouse user interest. For example, in addition to the price and quality of general users, the delivery time (time to market) is also an important parameter that users care about. Especially for manufacturers of single-piece and small-batch production, or some non-standard parts and non-universal parts. Commodities, these products generally start production after the contract is signed. In this way, the ability to deliver quickly and in time directly affects the implementation of the entire project and the smooth realization of the plan for the user. The short delivery time and the record of on-time delivery undoubtedly increase the silicon code for winning users.

In the integrated environment, it is convenient to estimate the delivery date. Read the production plan and queue of parts to be processed from the production department, get the production cycle of the product from the design process department, and calculate the accurate delivery date.

In addition to the price, quality, and delivery date, the product features have many other aspects, such as corporate strength, delivery methods, use-quality commitment, hero service commitment, after-sales technical support, etc. Companies can make full use of the integrated environment, analyze their own advantages in these aspects, and fully reflect these advantages in the quotation and negotiation process, increase the company's market competitiveness and increase the success rate of obtaining orders.

1.3.2 Analysis of Market Environment
The analysis of the market environment mainly includes the analysis of the product update period, the product's raw material supply status, and the comprehensive strength of the company and its competitors. Competition is a problem that the commodity society must face. Competitors will occupy the market and reduce corporate profits; at the same time, competitors can promote the development of the company and provide the company with successful cases, management methods, production models, and advanced experience that can be learned. . Analyzing competitors can not only learn the advantages of the opponents, but also find the shortcomings of the opponents, and take the initiative in the process of competition.

Taking the analysis of the comprehensive strength of the company and its competitors as an example, the analysis methods include direct analysis and indirect analysis. The direct analysis method is to understand the status of competing companies through the promotional materials, samples, and information of some authoritative organizations. Through the weighted evaluation of comprehensive strength, you can clearly know the position of the company in the industry. The scope of its application is mainly Production equipment, technical strength, production capacity, etc.; indirect analysis method is mainly to analyze peer companies through customer evaluation and market share. This analysis method is mainly used in the analysis of market operating conditions, especially after the bid fails. In the cost calculation, quotation, and bidding process, the funds are spent after the bid fails, and these funds become invalid funds. Through indirect analysis, find out the failure point of the enterprise, and clearly understand the existing shortcomings and the direction of future efforts.

1.3.3 Analysis of Customer Characteristics
In the past, companies only regarded "consumer loyalty" as a consumption inertia. Now, in the market environment of the new economy, various companies have made many changes in order to succeed. The most difficult, risky, and most important change is to start focusing on customers. Customers are the ultimate consumers of enterprise products and the supporters of enterprise product value realization. In the development of modern enterprises, they realize that they are customer-centric. Mastering detailed customer information helps to quote reasonable prices, and at the same time formulating targeted marketing strategies based on customer characteristics and needs, can increase the success rate of transactions and maximize profits. In the process of analyzing customer characteristics, it is important to evaluate customer needs and use customer relationship management tools.

(1) Evaluate customer needs
Since each product is designed to enable its users to improve their lives in a certain way, understanding the needs of users is a high-level investment that makes the product successful. To win customers and profits, companies must understand what customers need and how to better serve them, that is, adopt customer-centric business.

Different customers have different requirements for the performance of the product. Some customers have high requirements for certain parts of the product. The product under continuous working conditions, the customer hopes that its stability is good, and the product is often overloaded, and it is hoped that its safety factor should be high. Customers have high requirements for after-sales service, and some customers have higher expectations for service life. Grasping the customer's psychology, fully displaying the advantages of this product in this respect, arousing customers' interest, and formulating separate marketing strategies and product performance commitments for these customers, increasing the competitiveness of this product in the market. In order to clearly understand the needs of customers, their satisfaction with products, analyze customers' price tolerance, factors that customers are interested in, and improve the success rate of contracts, etc., a customer demand analysis matrix as shown in Table 1-2 can be established.

Analyzing the users listed in Table 1-2, you will get the following marketing strategy: For customer 1 the quality of this product is slightly lower than the user's requirements, explain to the user that this product is a standard series product, if the user adheres to the quality requirements, then The company designs and produces for customer 1 alone, but the price increases by 5%, and promises to arrive at the scene within 3 days for customer 1 regarding after-sales service and technical support. For customer 2, the quality of this product is a bit surplus, but the product quantity demand is too small, it is not worthwhile to design and produce separately, convince customer 2 to accept the quality of this product, and adjust the price slightly.

(2) Use customer relationship management tools
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) originated from a new business model of "customer-centric", which was proposed by the American Gartner Group. CRM realizes the maximization of customer value by subdividing and managing the relationship between enterprises and customers. CRM provides comprehensive and personalized customer information to the sales, marketing, and service departments and personnel of enterprises, and strengthens tracking services and information analysis capabilities, so that they can collaborate to establish and maintain a series of effective relationships with customers and business partners. "One-to-one relationship" enables companies to provide faster and more thoughtful quality services, improve customer satisfaction, and attract and maintain more customers.

The general process of using customer relationship management tools in the quotation system is: first obtain customer information through the customer information acquisition module, then segment the market with the help of corporate marketing personnel, find existing and potential high-profit customers, and finally pass Decision makers interactively plan and implement promotional activities to influence customer behavior, achieve the purpose of acquiring and maintaining customers and increasing customer loyalty. Figure 1-7 shows the structure of a typical customer relationship management tool. It can be seen from Figure 1-7. The customer relationship management tool consists of 6 parts: customer information acquisition module, customer segmentation module, customer scoring module, customer processing module, internal database and knowledge base, which are closely connected and external Use cases (such as domain experts, business decision-makers) to jointly complete the goal of customer relationship management under the synergy of use cases (such as domain experts, corporate decision-makers).

1.4 Sheet metal product quotation decision
1.4.1 Analysis of quotation decision elements
Product quotation decision is an important link to obtain good corporate benefits, but for a long time, corporate product quotations have been made by business sales decision-makers based on their own experience, or business decision-makers from industry authorities based on industry averages. Yes, this is bound to carry considerable blindness and uncertainty. Various complex factors such as market desire, product quality, customer psychology, new technology application, and potential dangers will have a profound impact on the business decisions of various companies. Therefore, the application of scientific quotation decision-making methods will improve the effectiveness and reliability of business decision-making, so that enterprises can win customer orders with satisfactory product prices in product quotation decision-making, and bring good economic benefits to the enterprise.

According to the thinking of decision theory, decision-making must have three basic elements, namely, goal, plan, and information. In this way, the research content of quotation decision is:
(1) Quotation target
Under normal conditions, the primary goal of corporate pricing is to maximize corporate profits over a long period of time. However, for different enterprises, due to the different forms of ownership and operation, the market environment and its structure and other constraints of various constraints, in a certain period, a certain product or a certain business, often have to abandon the largest To make more feasible profit targets based on limited profit, we often choose specific targets based on our own economic strength, competitive environment and other conditions, and the different stages in the product life cycle. The common quotation targets of enterprises are: profit target, market target, capital target and opportunity target, etc.

(2) Quotation strategy
Different quotation targets determine different quotation strategies. The quotation strategy is a higher level of corporate decision-making second only to the quotation target, and is a strategy to achieve the quotation target. After determining the quotation target, the enterprise must constantly receive feedback from the changes and development trends of the market environment according to its own conditions, and flexibly adopt and adjust the quotation strategy to achieve the quotation decision-making goal. Summarize the various promotion and quotation methods of different businesses and enterprises. The general quotation strategies include profit measurement quotation strategy, product life cycle quotation strategy, combination quotation strategy, discount quotation strategy, psychological quotation strategy, etc.

(3) Quotation method
Quotation methods are specific calculation techniques and implementation methods that can be adopted to achieve quotation goals and strategies. Commonly used product quotation methods include complete cost quotation method, marginal cost quotation method, differential quotation method, and related product price comparison method.

1.4.2 Quotation decision process and model
Through the research and analysis of the practical experience of the enterprise, the quotation decision process of sheet metal products as shown in Figure 1-8 can be established. This process uses a layered analysis and consideration of price influence factors. The most basic goal of an enterprise's production and operation is to obtain profit, and profit is determined by several major factors such as price, sales and cost. Therefore, the decision-making process takes the analysis and construction of the relationship between price and sales volume as the starting point, and then analyzes the influence of factors such as quotation strategy, quotation method, and competition measures of competitors on the relationship between product sales and price.

Analyzing the above-mentioned quotation decision-making process, we can find that it has some characteristics. First, price decision-making is a dynamic process. It is a scientific judgment made after systematic analysis, research and demonstration based on a large amount of market information. The choice of this judgment behavior is determined in an uncertain dynamic environment. Therefore, after its decision-making plan is formulated, it is not static, but must be adjusted in time with the changes of various environmental factors: Second, the quotation decision-making process is not a procedural procedure that is carried out completely according to Figure 1-8 from beginning to end. process.

Since the quotation decision process is a dynamic process, if environmental factors change, the decision plan needs to be adjusted. When making adjustments to the plan, it is not required to follow the process shown in Figure 1-8, but only to consider the impact of related and changed factors on the plan. Third, the determination of the final price is closely related to the preferences of business decision makers. Since there may be multiple business strategic goals for a company, and each feasible quotation plan achieves each goal to a different degree, there is no preference of the decision maker, and there is no way to distinguish the pros and It should be decided according to the degree of preference of the decision makers for each business objective.

According to the above product quotation decision-making process, we can build the product quotation decision model shown in Figure 1-9. The model mainly considers the factors that affect the quotation decision from four aspects: product technology influencing factor K1, enterprise operating status influencing factor K2, market environment influencing factor K3, and customer characteristics influencing factor K4. Taking product technology influence factors as an example, the judgment rules are shown in Table 1-3.